Planned spending in the recently enacted 2017-19 state budget departs from recent patterns in two important ways. First, general fund expenditures rise 8.8% over the two years, the largest biennial increase since 2009-11 (12.1%). Second, much of the increase is for school aid, which has grown less in recent years. K-12 aid will grow 8.3% over two years, the largest biennial jump since 2005-07 (9.0%). These are two important findings from a new review of the 2017-19 state budget, “Decisions Made, Questions Deferred,” from the Wisconsin Taxpayers Alliance (WISTAX).
State general fund appropriations are budgeted to increase from $15.9 billion in 2017 to $16.6 billion in 2018 and to $17.4 billion in 2019. Over half of all general fund expenditures go, not to fund state services, but to aid local governments, WISTAX noted. Another 26% aids individuals and organizations, particularly Medicaid for the poor and disabled. State operations, including the U.W. System, consume the remaining 24%.
The state’s largest expenditure is for K-12 school aid, which grows significantly over the next two years. School aids are rising 3.4% ($187.4 million) this year and 4.7% ($264.3 million) in 2019 to $5.9 billion. School aids rose 5.6% and 3.9%, respectively, during the prior two biennia. Nearly all of the additional dollars are directed into a relatively new “per pupil” aid, rather than into the much larger equalization aid formula; this is a major shift in school funding.
Two other areas claim the bulk of remaining new spending. The budget uses income and sales taxes to reduce property taxes. It eliminates the state levy for forestry programs ($90 million annually) and the personal property tax on machinery, tools, and parts ($74 million); increases the school levy credit by $87 million per year, and raises the lottery credit by shifting $48 million of general fund taxes to pay lottery expenses.
As with prior budgets, Medicaid expenditures are growing. General fund spending on the program totals $6.1 billion over two years, a 4.9% increase.